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Private investigators work to uncover information about a crime, the identity of a person, or the cause of a fire or accident. They analyze, verify and provide this information to their clients or employers. Private investigators can specialize in fields such as law, finance, computer forensics, security and property loss. Many investigators possess a postsecondary qualification and a state-issued license.
Earn the Degree
Although individuals with a high school diploma can qualify for the job, many positions require advanced academic credentials. Aspiring legal and criminal investigators must earn at least an associate degree in police science, justice or criminal law, while corporate, property and financial investigators need a bachelor’s in business, accounting or finance. Computer forensic investigators also require a bachelor's degree in computer science or information technology.
Acquire the Skills
Competent private investigators are very inquisitive. When interviewing a person, they focus on obtaining as much relevant information as possible through their questioning. Investigators use analytical skills to evaluate this information and decision-making skills to determine whether it is credible. Investigators who are licensed to carry guns must possess great technical skills to use them safely and properly. Other useful competences include good communication skills and the ability to conduct long investigations without losing patience.
Obtain the License
All states except Wyoming, South Dakota, Idaho and Mississippi require private investigators to hold a license, as of 2014. Although requirements vary by state, licensees must generally have a high school diploma, possess some relevant work experience, and pass a criminal background check and a written examination. Investigators who are licensed to practice in other professions, such as finance, may be exempt from obtaining a private investigation license. Investigators can prove their expertise by obtaining relevant credentials, such as the Professional Certified Investigator or Certified Legal Investigator certifications, which are offered by ASIS International and the National Association of Legal Investigators, respectively.
Secure a Job
Qualified private investigators may be hired by businesses, law firms, individuals, private investigation companies and government intelligence agencies. After gaining vast job experience, some investigators progress to becoming private investigation managers, and others establish their own private investigation businesses. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the employment for private detectives and investigators is expected to grow by 11 percent from 2012 through 2022, equal to the average for all occupations.
2016 Salary Information for Private Detectives and Investigators
Private detectives and investigators earned a median annual salary of $48,190 in 2016, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. On the low end, private detectives and investigators earned a 25th percentile salary of $35,710, meaning 75 percent earned more than this amount. The 75th percentile salary is $66,300, meaning 25 percent earn more. In 2016, 41,400 people were employed in the U.S. as private detectives and investigators.
- U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: Private Detectives and Investigators
- Professional Investigator Magazine: Private Investigator License Requirements by State
- ASIS International: Professional Certified Investigator
- National Association of Legal Investigators: National Association of Legal Investigators Certified Legal Investigator Program
- U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: Occupational Outlook Handbook: Private Detectives and Investigators
- Career Trend: Private Detectives and Investigators
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