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List of Specialized Careers

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Specialized careers are those which focus and place emphasis upon a particular area within a broader discipline. Certain specialty careers, such as the medical and nuclear technologist, center around a distinct job duty, or role.

Employers prefer to hire those with at least a bachelor's degree within their field. Some fields also require certification, serving as proof of acquired expertise.


The field of medicine covers a wide array of specialized careers. Medical technologists are scientists who perform tests to examine human body fluids such as blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). They work to identify bacteria, and abnormal cell growth. Medical technologists usually have a bachelor's degree in Medical Technology or a life science, like Biology.

Another type of technologist in the medical field specializes in nuclear medicine. They administer radioactive chemicals to patients to perform procedures involving organ imaging, such as positron emission topography (PET) and computed tomography scans (CT). Scanning tests produce 3- and 4-dimensional images of organs within the human body, and are useful for diagnosing and treating illness. Some nuclear technologists choose to specialize in nuclear cardiology, which focuses on heart imaging.

Behavioral Science

The science of human behavior, behavioral science encompasses many disciplines: sociology, psychology, anthropology and political science.

Primarily involved with the criminal justice system, forensic psychologists apply psychology to legal situations. Duties include performing evaluations concerning child abuse, custody battles, and mental competency. Some provide psychotherapeutic services to victims of violent crime, such as rape or physical assault. A Ph.D. or Psy.D. in Forensic Psychology is required.

Psychobiologists study the connection of brain and behavior. They can be found working in biotechnology, research, medicine, and education.

Natural and Physical Science

A very important area of biological science, biotechnology involves using life science combined with technology to manufacture pharmaceuticals, as well as agricultural and environmental products. This field is experiencing rapid development, “driving job growth” for biological scientists.

Aerospace engineering, a highly specialized area of the physical sciences, has to do with the construction of air and spacecraft. This, however has specialties of its own: astronautical and aeronautical engineering. Astronautical engineering involves the design and construction of spacecraft for use outside of Earth’s atmosphere, while aeronautical engineering is concerned with the creation of aircraft within Earth’s boundaries, such as airplanes. These specialties are of particular benefit to military and defense.

Computer and IT Technology

A highly lucrative and specialized career, computer information systems management deals with supervising all areas of a company’s technological operations, such as software development, and network security maintenance. While a bachelor's degree in Computer Science or Management of Information Systems (MIS) will suffice, most employers prefer to hire those with a master's in Business Administration combined with technology.

Database administrators (DBA) are responsible for the design, development, and operation of a company’s database. A database is a system which organizes information such as that related to customers, students, and products. Database administrators deal with the maintenance and security of systems as well.


Aunice Reed is a medical science writer living in Los Angeles, Calif. With over 10 years previous nursing experience, Reed has been writing for over six years and has attended University of Northern Iowa, University of California, Los Angeles and Los Angeles Harbor College.

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