Forensic analysis is a method of investigating an incident by finding evidence that proves who, what, when, where and why of the incident. Five common types of forensic analysis, are deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, computer, handwriting, bloodstain and statement analysis.
DNA is a nucleic acid containing genetic material that exists in every part of the body. This type of forensic analysis is useful in solving crimes and determining paternity. To complete a forensic analysis of DNA, a forensic scientist isolates the unknown DNA sample, processes the sample, determines the specifics and type of DNA, finds a possible DNA source and compares the test results to determine if the individual’s DNA is a match to the sample.
Forensic analysis performed on a computer hard drive provides a complete history of the computer and its user. This type of forensic analysis is useful when investigating matters such as corporate fraud, intellectual property theft and threats of violence. While a user may delete a file or email, the information remains on the hard drive. Forensic analysis on a computer involves recovering all documents, emails, spreadsheets, videos and downloads and all other content for review.
Most people write with different stroke directions, pressure areas and font sizes, allowing handwriting experts to identify the author of a document even when the writer attempts to disguise his writing. Most handwriting experts require an original document to make a comparison and will never declare two documents a definite match, as some individuals are able to copy another individuals writing. Handwriting analysis is useful for behavioral profiling and matching any handwriting left at the scene of a crime.
Bloodstain pattern analysis is a method of analyzing the bloodstains left at the scene of a crime. Forensic investigators analyzing bloodstains understand the different dynamics of altercations as well as the manner in which blood exits the body and contacts with a surface. This understanding allows a forensic investigator to examine the patterns made by the blood, measure the blood drops, use trigonometry to determine the motion of the blood drops and piece together a re-creation of a sequence of events during a crime.
Forensic statement analysis is a method of investigating an individual’s statement of events, such as a confession, kidnapping note or terrorist threat. A forensic analyst creates a profile of the author by searching for certain expressions or words pertaining to specific social identities or geographical areas and examining the quality of the grammar and spelling and the structure of the words. While this profile won't determine the author, the profile will assess the levels of threat, risk and deception in the statement.