Sod farms provide sod for such purposes as restoring land disturbed by construction projects, athletic fields and golf courses. Though expensive to establish, a sod farm can pay for itself eventually. To build an effective sod farm, the grounds must be kept in prime condition, because only the best-looking sod will sell. Equipment and supplies are needed to maintain the sod farm.
Decide which of the many types of grass to grow. Choose the one the market in your area best supports. Talk to other sod farmers or sod brokers to find out what type of grass sells best. Find types of grass that are common in your area. Consult biologists or agricultural offices for more information.
Choose land suitable for starting the sod farm. Make sure it is close to a water supply and has proper drainage but is relatively flat. If possible, choose a location near a busy road to attract customers and better advertise.
Use tilling equipment and a tractor to clear rocks and other hazards that could cause the sod to break up. Fertilize the soil and treat it with herbicides and insecticides for optimal soil health. Consider nitrogen, phosphate and potash as fertilizers. Refer to the manufacturer's information to ensure that you use only herbicides and insecticides that are known not to threaten the grass.
Spread grass seed using a spreader and a tractor. Water the area thoroughly with an irrigation system. Watch the grass over the next week or so. Water and fertilize again as needed.
Mow the sod regularly, as you would a lawn, and keep it looking in prime condition. Use more herbicide if weeds grow in the grass, which happens less on sod farms than in ordinary lawns because of the mowing cycle and the use of fertilizer. Watch for bare spots and repair them with extra grass seed and fertilizer.
Use a lawn roller to keep the sod even. Cut the grass in sections using an ax or professional sod cutter to prepare it for distribution. Store the sections outside in a pile when they are ready to be removed from the farm.
Wear safety glasses when applying fertilizer, herbicides and insecticides.